Please enable Javascript in your Browsersettings!

Loading

Caverta

By T. Enzo. American Institute for Computer Sciences.

Substance buy discount caverta 50mg on line erectile dysfunction 40, perforated – auricular order caverta 50mg mastercard muse erectile dysfunction wiki, of sacrum 191, 433 – – of foot 501 – posterior 103, 137 – bare – – of hand 390 Substantia nigra 65, 99, 103, 116 – – of ascending colon 318 – of hand 14 Sulcus – – of descending colon 318 – of tendon – calcarine 99, 103, 137 – costal 369 – – of extensor hallucis longus muscle 493 – – communication with parieto-occipital sulcus – diaphragmatic – – of flexor pollicis longus muscle 390 f 99 – – of liver 298 – – of tibialis anterior muscle 493 – carotid 30, 38 – – of lung 249 Systole 260 – central 89 f, 94, 100 f – gluteal, of ilium 437 – – of insula 72 – lunate, of acetabulum 433, 436, 445 – chiasmatic 25, 30 – malleolar, lateral, of talus 443 – cingulate 99 – patellar, of femur 439, 441, 447 T – circular, of insula 109 – pelvic, of sacrum 433 – coronary 252, 257 f, 260 ff – popliteal, of femur 439, 441 Taenia – of corpus callosum 99 – symphysial, of pubis 433, 438 – coli 306 – frontal, superior 100 Surface anatomy 204 f, 401 f, 476 f – free, of colon 307 f, 310, 318 – infra-orbital 132 Sustentaculum tali 443, 450 f Tail – intertubercular 373, 378 Suture – of caudate nucleus 115 – interventricular 268 – coronal 20 ff, 29, 35 – of epididymis 343 f – – anterior 252, 255, 257, 260, 262 – ethmoidolacrimal 20 – of pancreas 297, 300, 316 – – posterior 252, 257, 262 – frontal 22 f, 35 Talus 443, 449 ff – lateral 89, 100 – frontomaxillary 23 – articular surface – – ascending ramus, anterior 100 f – frontonasal 22 – – calcaneal – – horizontal ramus, anterior 100 f – frontosphenoid 21 – – – anterior 449 – – posterior ramus 101 – intermaxillary 22 – – – middle 449 – lunate 100 – internasal 22 f –––posterior 449 – malleolar, of tibia 440 – lacrimomaxillary 20 – – navicular 449 – median, of tongue 149 – lambdoid 20 f, 29, 35 – of newborn 9 – mylohyoid 52 – nasomaxillary 20 ff, 23 Tectum 94, 108, 114 – occipital, transverse 92 – of newborn 35 Telencephalon 91 – olfactory 66 – occipitomastoid 20 f, 29 Tendon 393, 415, 499 – orbital, of frontal lobe 66 – palatine – of abductor pollicis longus muscle 388, 390, – parieto-occipital 99 – – median 33, 45 392, 394, 401, 427 – postcentral 100 f – – transverse 45 – annular, common 135, 141 – precentral 99 f, 101 – palatomaxillary 33 – of biceps femoris muscle 455 f, 484 – temporal, inferior 66 – parietomastoid 20 – – surface anatomy 476 f – terminalis – sagittal 29, 35 – calcaneal 449, 457 ff, 489, 491 ff – – cordis 256, 260 f – sphenofrontal 20, 23 – – surface anatomy 476 – – of tongue 149 – sphenosquamosal 21 – central Supination 368 f, 391 – sphenozygomatic 23 – – of diaphragm 278, 283, 298, 329 Surface – squamomastoid 125 – – of perineum 353, 361 – articular – squamous 20 f – of deep flexor muscles 458 – – calcaneal – zygomaticomaxillary 22 f – of extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle 392 ff – – – anterior, of talus 449 Symmetry, bilateral 1 – of extensor carpi radialis longus muscle 392 ff – – – middle, of talus 449 Symphysis, pubic 7, 188 f, 293, 354, 356, 432, – of extensor carpi ulnaris muscle 392, 424 –––posterior, of talus 449 435 f – of extensor digiti minimi muscle 392 – – inferior, of tibia 440 – midsagittal section 322 – of extensor digitorum brevis muscle of foot 493 – – malleolar, of fibula 440 Synchondrosis, spheno-occipital 27, 38 – of extensor digitorum longus muscle of foot – – navicular, of talus 449 Syndesmosis, tibiofibular 443, 495 459, 462, 491, 498 f – – of navicular bone 449 Synovial fluid 12 – of extensor digitorum muscle of hand 392 ff, – – of patella 441, 448 Synovial sheath 401, 424 – – proximal, of tibia 447 – common – of extensor hallucis longus muscle 458 f, 491, – – superior – – of extensor digitorum longus muscle 493 493, 498 f –––ofaxis200 – – of flexor tendons of hand 390 f – of extensor indicis muscle 392, 394, 401 –––oftibia440 – digital – of extensor muscles of hand 381 – – talar – – of flexor tendons of hand 390 f – of extensor pollicis brevis muscle 388, 392, – – – anterior, of calcaneus 449 – – of foot 501 394, 427 – – – middle, of calcaneus 449 – of extensor tendons of hand 392 – of extensor pollicis longus muscle 392, 394, –––posterior, of calcaneus 449 – of flexor tendons 424 Index 529 Page numbers in bold indicate main discussions. Synovial sheath – – third 37 – horizontal section 210 f – of short head of biceps brachii muscle 387 – premolar 37, 50 f – jugular 172 f – of stapedius muscle 126, 128 – upper 22, 41 f, 44 f, 50 ff – lumbar 332 – of superior oblique muscle 135 f, 140 Trabecula(-ae) – lumbosacral 471 – of supraspinatus muscle 378 – carneae 259 – lymph vessels 17 – of temporalis muscle 60 f, 80, 82 – septomarginal 258 – median section 4, 233 – of tensor veli palatini muscle 126 Trachea 154, 243, 255, 274 ff, 285 – – in neonate 233 – of tibialis anterior muscle 458, 461, 493, 495, Tract(s) 477 – midsagittal section 322, 354 498 f – cerebellorubral 103 – neuro-vascular segments 187 – of tibialis posterior muscle 460 f – iliotibial 448, 452 f, 455, 480, 495 – parasagittal section 325 – of triceps brachii muscle 409 – – surface anatomy 476 f – pulmonary 245, 252 ff, 260 ff, 266, 269, 271 Tenon’s space 132 – olfactory 65 f, 69, 74 f, 98 f, 103, 107, 114 f, – – of fetus 288 Tentorium cerebelli 67, 75, 87 ff, 97, 121 146 – – relation to bronchial tree 275 Testis 3, 218, 330, 336 f, 339, 341, 343, 351, 479 – – lateral root 99 – reference lines 217 – Head’s area 205 – – medial root 99 – regions 217 – longitudinal section 343 – olivocochlear 131 – sagittal section 5 Thalamus 90 f, 99, 103 ff, 107, 113, 116, 120 – optic 66, 71, 107, 137 f – skeleto-motoric segments 187 Thenar muscles 390 f, 395, 423 – pyramidal 109, 116 – skeleton 221 – axial section 431 – – course 111 – subclavian 184, 332 Thigh – – lateral 103 – sympathetic 18, 67, 146, 162, 164 f, 168, 185, – anterior region 478 ff – of Rasmussen 131 266, 279 ff, 327, 333, 334 f, 471 f – arteries 480 f – spiral, foraminous 123 – – cervical part 174 – axial section 496 Tractus solitarius 116 – – Ramus communicans 280 f 530 Index Page numbers in bold indicate main discussions. Trunk – sacral 433 Uvula 62, 86 f, 144, 147, 163, 165 – thyrocervical 162, 168 ff, 177, 271, 396, 404 – tibial 440 f, 458 f – of bladder 338 – vagal 335 – ulnar 374 – of vermis 102 – – anterior 327 Tubules, seminiferous, convoluted 343 – – posterior 327 Tunica Tube – albuginea – auditory 120, 122 ff, 126 f, 143 – – of corpora cavernosa 339 V – – bony part 27 – – of corpus spongiosum 339 – – opening 145, 147 – – of testis 341 Vagina 322 f, 355, 356, 358, 360 – – pharyngeal opening 86, 144, 246 – vaginalis Vallecula of epiglottis 149 – uterine 354 ff, 359 f, 366 f – – parietal layer 341, 343 Valve(s) – – position 323 – – testis 218, 343 – aortic 253, 255 f, 258 f, 261, 284 Tuber – – visceral layer 341, 343 – atrioventricular – calcanei 451 ––left255 f, 258 f – cinereum 99 – – right 255 f, 258 ff, 287 – frontal 35 – bicuspid 255 f, 258 f – parietal 29, 35 U – of heart 255 ff – of vermis 102 – – position 255, 260 Tuber-trochanter line 482 Ulna 7, 10, 368, 374, 376 f, 379 ff, 425 – ileocecal 310 Tubercle – anterior surface 375 – – horizontal section 320 – anterior – axial section 419, 431 – of inferior vena cava 288 – – of atlas 191 – of newborn 9 – mitral 255 f, 258 f – – of transverse process 191 – posterior surface 374 – pulmonary 255 f, 259 f, 271, 286, 325 – articular 21, 27 f, 50, 54 Umbilicus 3, 187, 209 – tricuspid 255 f, 258 ff, 287 – conoid 369 Uncus Vasa recta of renal medulla 329 – corniculate 160 – hippocampi 99 Vein(s) 16, 468 – cuneiform 160 – of parahippocampal gyrus 106 – alveolar – dorsal, of atlas 223 Urachus 289, 339, 354, 361 – – inferior 83 – genial 36, 52 Ureter 3, 210, 296, 300, 326 ff, 330 ff, 336 ff, – anastomotic – greater, of humerus 372 f, 430 359 – – inferior 92 – infraglenoid 370 ff – abdominal part 326 f, 330, 336 – – superior 89 – intercondylar – Head’s area 205 – angular 170 – – lateral, of tibia 440 – pelvic part 330, 336 – arcuate 329, 468 – – medial, of tibia 448 – position 323 – axillary 170, 186, 196, 214, 252, 264, 398, – – posterior, of tibia 440 Urethra 411 – jugular 25, 27, 39 – female 354 f – azygos 244, 246, 276, 279 f, 332 – lesser, of humerus 373, 430 – male 336 ff – basilic 398, 402, 410, 419 – olfactory 99 – membranous part 336 ff, 342, 344 – brachial 398, 415 – pharyngeal 25, 27, 33, 164 – prostatic part 336 ff, 344 f – – surface anatomy 402 – posterior – spongy 337 ff – brachiocephalic 155, 170, 177, 244, 252, 255, – – of atlas 191, 200 Urinary bladder 265, 267, 271, 274, 396, 398 – – of transverse process 191 – base 367 – – of fetus 288 f – pubic 433, 435 – of the female 354 f, 357 ff, 361 – cardiac – of rib 191 f, 197 – of the fetus 289 – – great 258, 262 – supraglenoid 370 f – frontal section 293 – – middle 262 – thyroid – Head’s area 205 – – minimal 262 – – inferior 159 – horizontal section 324 – – small 262, 270 – – superior 159 – of the male 336 ff – cephalic 170 f, 207, 209, 211, 265, 290, 398, Tuberculum sellae 38 – midsagittal section 322 406, 416 Tuberosity – mucous membrane 338 f – – accessory 401 f – calcaneal 443, 450, 457, 463, 491 – position 323 – – on forearm 398, 401 f, 419 – deltoid 373 Urinary organs, position 323 f – – surface anatomy 402 – of distal phalanx 376 f Urinary system 330 f – cerebral 92 – – of great toe 442 Urogenital system – – great 90, 145 – of fifth metatarsal bone 443 – female 354 ff – – inferior 89, 92 – ischial 188, 344, 433, 436 f, 455 f, 472, 482 – male 336 ff – – internal 86 – masseteric 52 Uterus 354 ff, 358, 359 f, 366 f – – middle, superficial 92 – maxillary 39 ff, 46 – position 323 – – superior 89, 92 – radial 374 f, 379 Utricle, prostatic 338 – of Cockett 468 f Index 531 Page numbers in bold indicate main discussions. Lymph vessels – – nerves 214 ff – coronal section 425 – retinal 134 – – posterior 316 ff Vestibular apparatus 122 ff, 129 – – – veins 279 Vestibule – – transverse section 213 – of larynx 149 – – vessels 214 ff – of lesser sac 324 – thoracic 206 ff Z – nasal 53, 144 f – – anterior 187, 206 ff – oral 50, 53, 83, 150 – – – arteries 208 Zona orbicularis 444 f . The color-coded reference guide on the first page will help you find what you need. The aspects of each pathogen are covered systematically, using the following order wherever practicable: & Classification & Pathogenesis and Clinical Picture & Localization & Diagnosis & Morphology and Culturing & Therapy & Developmental Cycle & Epidemiology and Prophylaxis & A summary at the beginning of a chapter or section provides a quick over- view of what the main text covers. Students can use the summaries to obtain a quick recapitulation of the main points. Additional information In-depth expositions and supplementary knowledge are framed in boxes inter- spersed throughout the main body of text. The headings outline the topic covered, enabling the reader to decide whether the specific material is needed at the present time. Emeritus Professor of Medical Microbiology Institute of Medical Microbiology University of Zurich Zurich, Switzerland Kurt A. Emeritus Professor of Virology Institute of Medical Microbiology University of Basle Basle, Switzerland Johannes Eckert, D. Emeritus Professor of Parasitology Institute of Parasitology University of Zurich Zurich, Switzerland Rolf M. Professor Institute of Experimental Immunology Department of Pathology Zurich, Switzerland 177 illustrations 97 tables Thieme Stuttgart Á New York Kayser, Medical Microbiology © 2005 Thieme All rights reserved. Usage subject to terms and conditions of license Library of Congress Cataloging-in- Important note: Medicine is an ever-chan- Publication Data ging science undergoing continual develop- Medizinische Mikrobiologie. Nevertheless, this does not involve, imply, 1st German edition 1969 or express any guarantee or responsibilityon 2nd German edition 1971 the part of the publishers in respect to any 3rd German edition 1974 dosage instructions and forms of applica- 4th German edition 1978 tions stated in the book. Every user is re- 5th German edition 1982 quested to examine carefully the manufac- 6th German edition 1986 turers’ leaflets accompanying each drug and 7th German edition 1989 to check, if necessary in consultation with a 8th German edition 1993 physician or specialist, whether the dosage 9th German edition 1998 schedules mentioned therein or the contra- 1st Greek edition 1995 indications stated by the manufacturers dif- fer from the statements made in the present 1st Italian edition 1996 book. Such examination is particularly im- 1st Japanese edition 1980 portant with drugs that are either rarely 1st Spanish edition 1974 used or have been newly released on the 2nd Spanish edition 1982 market. Every dosage schedule or every 1st Turkish edition 2001 form of application used is entirely at the user’s own risk and responsibility. The This book is an authorized and updated authors and publishers request every user translation of the 10th German edition to report to the publishers any discrepancies published and copyrighted 2001 or inaccuracies noticed. Title of the German edition: registered designs referred to in this book Medizinische Mikrobiologie are in fact registered trademarks or proprie- tary names even though specific reference to ª 2005 Georg Thieme Verlag, this fact is not always made in the text. Ru¨digerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Therefore, the appearance of a name without Germany designation as proprietary is not to be con- http://www. Any use, ex- Cover design: Cyclus, Stuttgart ploitation, or commercialization outside the Typesetting by Mitterweger & Partner narrow limits set by copyright legislation, GmbH, 68723 Plankstadt without the publisher’s consent, is illegal Printed in Germany by Appl, Wemding and liable to prosecution. Usage subject to terms and conditions of license V Preface Medical Microbiology comprises and integrates the fields of immunology, bacteriology, virology, mycology, and parasitology, each of which has seen considerable independent development in the past few decades. The com- mon bond between them is the focus on the causes of infectious diseases and on the reactions of the host to the pathogens. The objective of this textbook of medical microbiology is to instill a broad- based knowledge of the etiologic organisms causing disease and the patho- genetic mechanisms leading to clinically manifest infections into its users.

You see a friend that accompanied the patient to the hospital and ask him some questions discount caverta 100mg visa zyrtec impotence. What is the most likely organism that is responsible for the patient’s presentation? Upon physical examination discount caverta 100 mg with amex erectile dysfunction vacuum pump india, there are decreased breath sounds on the right as compared to the left. A chest radiograph indicates blunting of the right costophrenic angle with a fluid line. Given this patient’s history, which of the following most likely describes his effusion? Upon physical examination, the patient appears to be in mild distress with audible wheezing. She is able to speak in partial sen- tences and states that she occasionally uses an inhaler. Given this patient’s history and physical examination, which of the following measures should be taken next? If pharyngeal or laryngeal structures become involved, or there is significant tongue swelling, the patient may begin to compromise their airway and emergent intubation or surgical cricothyroidotomy needs to be performed. All patients need to be on a monitor and should receive supplemental oxygen despite normal oxygen saturation. Heparin is the first-line therapy in this patient and should be administered promptly. Warfarin initially causes a temporary hypercoagulable state because the anticoagulants, protein C and S (inhibited by warfarin), have shorter half-lives compared with the procoagulant vitamin K–dependent proteins that warfarin also inhibits. Classically, it presents with a productive cough with currant jelly sputum, fever, general malaise, and an overall toxic appearance. A dense lobar infiltrate with a bulging fissure appearance on a chest radiograph is often described. Streptococcus pneumoniae (a) is the most common etiology in community- acquired pneumonia among adults. Mycoplasma pneumoniae (c) is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in patients under the age of 40. Legionella pneumophila (d) is an intracellular organism that lives in aquatic environments and is not transmitted from person to person. It is a pleomorphic gram-negative rod that can be encapsulated and identified as various serotypes, with type b as the most commonly causing bacteremia. Mild tachycardia, decreased breath sounds to auscultation, or hyperresonance to percussion are the most common findings. It typically occurs in healthy young men of taller than average stature without a pre- cipitating factor. Mitral valve prolapse and Marfan syndrome are also asso- ciated with pneumothoraces. Although suggested by this patient’s symptoms, the diagnosis of pneumothorax is generally made with a chest radiograph. The classic sign is the appearance of a thin, vis- ceral, pleural line lying parallel to the chest wall, separated by a radiolucent band that is devoid of lung markings. If clinical suspicion is high with a negative initial chest x-ray, inspiratory and expiratory films, or a lateral decubitus film may be taken to evaluate for lung collapse. A D-dimer (b) is a blood test used as a screening tool in patients who have a low pretest probability for a thromboembolism. If the chest radiograph is unremarkable in this patient, sending a D-dimer may help in the workup of his dyspnea. An upright abdominal x-ray (d) can assess for abdominal perforation, char- acteristically revealing air under the diaphragm.

discount caverta 50mg with visa

Because hundreds of people have been accused caverta 100 mg low cost erectile dysfunction drugs in the philippines, and even imprisoned 100mg caverta fast delivery erectile dysfunction causes lower back pain, on the basis of claims about “recovered memory‖ of child sexual abuse, the accuracy of these memories has important societal implications. Many psychologists now believe that most of these claims of recovered [17] memories are due to implanted, rather than real, memories (Loftus & Ketcham, 1994). Overconfidence One of the most remarkable aspects of Jennifer Thompson‘s mistaken identity of Ronald Cotton was her certainty. But research reveals a pervasive cognitive bias toward overconfidence, which is the tendency for people to be too certain about their ability to accurately remember events and to make judgments. David Dunning and his colleagues (Dunning, Griffin, Milojkovic, & Ross, [18] 1990) asked college students to predict how another student would react in various situations. Some participants made predictions about a fellow student whom they had just met and interviewed, and others made predictions about their roommates whom they knew very well. In both cases, participants reported their confidence in each prediction, and accuracy was determined by the responses of the people themselves. The results were clear: Regardless of whether they judged a stranger or a roommate, the participants consistently overestimated the accuracy of their own predictions. Eyewitnesses to crimes are also frequently overconfident in their memories, and there is only a small correlation between how accurate and how confident an eyewitness is. The witness who claims to be absolutely certain about his or her identification (e. This type of memory, which we experience along with a great deal of emotion, is known as a flashbulb memory—a vivid and emotional memory of [20] an unusual event that people believe they remember very well. People are very certain of their memories of these important events, and frequently [21] overconfident. Talarico and Rubin (2003) tested the accuracy of flashbulb memories by asking students to write down their memory of how they had heard the news about either the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks or about an everyday event that had occurred to them during the same time frame. Then the participants were asked again, either 1, 6, or 32 weeks later, to recall their memories. The participants became less accurate in their recollections of both the emotional event and the everyday events over time. But the participants‘ confidence in the accuracy of their memory of learning about the attacks did not decline over time. After 32 weeks the participants were overconfident; they were much more certain about the accuracy of their flashbulb memories than [22] they should have been. Schmolck, Buffalo, and Squire (2000) found similar distortions in memories of news about the verdict in the O. Heuristic Processing: Availability and Representativeness Another way that our information processing may be biased occurs when we use heuristics, which are information-processing strategies that are useful in many cases but may lead to errors when misapplied. Let‘s consider two of the most frequently applied (and misapplied) heuristics: the representativeness heuristic and the availability heuristic. In many cases we base our judgments on information that seems to represent, or match, what we expect will happen, while ignoring other potentially more relevant statistical information. Boy Using the representativeness heuristic may lead us to incorrectly believe that some patterns of observed events are more likely to have occurred than others. In this case, list B seems more random, and thus is judged as more likely to have occurred, but statistically both lists are equally likely. Most people think that list B is more likely, probably because list B looks more random, and thus matches (is “representative of‖) our ideas about randomness. But statisticians know that any pattern of four girls and four boys is mathematically equally likely. The problem is that we have a schema of what randomness should be like, which doesn‘t always match what is mathematically the case.

Nursing re- Barrett and Caroselli (1998) buy cheap caverta 50 mg online impotence prostate, Barrett discount caverta 50 mg otc erectile dysfunction doctors jacksonville fl, Cowling, search must be grounded in a theoretical per- Carboni, and Butcher (1997), Cowling (1986), spective unique to nursing in order for the Smith & Reeder (1996), and Rawnsley (1994) have research to contribute to the advance of nursing all advocated for the appropriateness of multiple science. Irreducible human/environmental energy fields sistent with Rogers’ unitary ontology and participa- are the focus of Rogerian inquiry: Energy fields tory epistemology. Later, Fawcett (1996) also are postulated to constitute the fundamental questioned the congruency between the ontology unit of the living and nonliving. Both human and epistemology of Rogerian science and the as- beings and the environment are understood as sumptions embedded in quantitative research de- dynamic energy fields that cannot be reduced to signs; like Carboni (1995) and Butcher (1994), she parts. Pattern manifestations are indicators of change: may be more congruent with Rogers’ ontology and Pattern is the distinguishing characteristic of an epistemology. This chapter presents an inclusive view of Pattern manifestations are the source of infor- methodologies. Nevertheless, the researcher needs mation emerging from the human/environmen- to present an argument as to how the design of the tal mutual field process and are the only valid study and interpretations of results are congruent reflections of the energy field. Further- of concern in Rogerian inquiry is conceptualized more, nurses interested in engaging in Rogerian and understood as manifestations of human/ research are encouraged to use, test, and refine the environmental energy mutual process. Pandimensional awareness: Rogerian inquiry sistent with the ontology and epistemology of the recognizes the pandimensional nature of reality. Human instrument is used for pattern knowing and modification of the Criteria of Rogerian and appreciation: The researchers use themselves Inquiry developed by Butcher (1994) and the as the primary pattern-apprehending instru- Characteristics of Operational Rogerian Inquiry ment. The criteria may be ment sensitive to, and which has the ability to a useful guide in designing research investigations interpret and understand, pandimensional po- guided by the Science of Unitary Human Beings. A priori nursing science: All research flows from a appreciation is the process of apprehending in- theoretical perspective. Every step of the inquiry, formation or manifestations of patterning including the type of questions asked, the con- emerging from the human/environmental field ceptualization of phenomena of concern, choice mutual process. The process of pattern knowing of research design, selection of participants, se- and appreciation is the same in the research en- lection of instruments, and interpretation of deavor as described earlier in the Rogerian prac- findings is guided by the science of unitary tice methodology. It is important to note that because of the aware of dynamic unpredictability and contin- incongruency between ontology and episte- uous change and is open to the idea that pat- mology of Rogerian science with assumptions terns in the inquiry process may change in the in quantitative designs, Carboni (1995b) ar- course of the study that may not have been en- gues that the researcher must select qualitative visioned in advance. It is essential that the researcher docu- ods with Rogerian science and argue that the ment and report any design changes. Pattern synthesis: Rogerian science emphasizes hence, both qualitative and quantitative meth- synthesis rather than analysis. The separation of parts is not consistent ence is reflected in the nature of questions with Rogers’ notion of integrality and irre- asked and their theoretical conceptualization ducible wholes. However, qualitative designs, the whole emerging from the human/environ- particularly those that have been derived from mental mutual field process. Synthesis allows the postulates and principles of the science for creating and viewing a coherent whole. Shared description and shared understanding: the natural settings where the phenomenon of Mutual process is enhanced by including par- inquiry occurs naturally, because the human ticipants in the process of inquiry where possi- field is inseparable and in mutual process with ble. Any “manipulation” of participants in the study enhances shared “variables” is inconsistent with mutual process, awareness, understanding, and knowing par- unpredictability, and irreducibility. The researcher and the researcher-into are inte- are the best judges of the authenticity and va- gral: The principle of integrality implies that lidity of their own experiences, perceptions, the researcher is inseparable and in mutual and expressions. Participatory action designs process with the environment and the partici- and focus groups conceptualized within pants in the study.

Caverta
10 of 10 - Review by T. Enzo
Votes: 209 votes
Total customer reviews: 209